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what is copper slag

However, the few studies evaluating the influence of using ground CS with different production methods on the properties of mortar (Douglas et al., 1986) and concrete (Mohsenian and Sohrabi, 2009a) have produced inconclusive results as shown in Figures 5.11 and 5.12. Mobasher, Devaguptapu, & Arino, 1996; Pavéz et al., 2004, Environmental Impact, Case Studies and Standards and Specifications, Alternative inorganic binders based on alkali-activated metallurgical slags, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites. Copper is a relatively valuable metal, and it is used in many residential and consumer products. Airo Shot Blast Copper Slag is an aggressive abrasive frequently used in new steel and steel maintenance applications. Slag that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as waste or utilized as discussed below. The effects of CS replacing sand on the strength of concrete and mortar, with varying strength grade and replacement levels up to 100%, have been investigated in a large number of studies reported since 1989. Slag and dross, which occur in significant amounts in every metallurgical process, have a very bad reputation as partially hazardous residues. How does using copper slag blasting compare to using sand or other materials? Kleen Blast Copper Slag is Washed before screening which helps to minimize the abundance of … Pune, Maharashtra, India, December 30 2020 (Wiredrelease) Prudour Pvt. Is one material better than the other for certain situations, or are they both about equal? Since the copper smelting slag contains high content of Fe, Cu and valuable metals, interest in recycling it is increasing. Cleaning of the primary slag is often economically justified and techniques including slow cooling and flotation, or pyrometallurgical or When mines extract copper, they often use sulfuric acid, which helps to separate the ore from the rest of the surrounding rock. Also, what is the price difference between the two? Before going into detail, it is worth appreciating that the reported experimental strength data on such a wide scale and over a period of time can, to an extent, vary between studies. Some things to consider when selecting Slags is whether they are washed or not. Table 4.3. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. I believe most of the problem is not with the ore itself, but with the process that removes the ore. Maybe this all depends on the size of the particles, but I thought most of the danger with breathing in dust was due to the size of the particles being able to enter the lungs. If you or a person you know can answer yes, you really need to read and share the below article that was published on The Baltimore Sun's front page, by Tim Wheeler, titled "Federal agency investigating sand-blasting hazards Contaminants in coal and copper slag pose risks, critics say.". During smelting, impurities become slag which floats on the molten metal. When specimens were cured at room temperature, this strength was achieved after 90 days of curing, although increasing the curing temperature to 65°C led to a similar strength being reached after 7 days. It also makes concrete more fire resistant, and helps to slow the spread of heat and flames. Copper slag can also be used as a building material, formed into blocks. I have always heard of copper mining as being extremely harmful for the environment. All metals would have some sort of waste products, but I don't know what qualities make something good for other uses. Collectively, these materials make up slag, which can be used for a surprising number of applications in the building and industrial fields. Copper slag has also gained popularity in the building industry for use as a fill material. Contractors may also use copper slag in place of sand during concrete construction. Under a constant water/cement ratio, with a given set of materials, and in the absence of particle size distribution data for the two sands, such a variable strength response with increasing CS content is most likely to be the outcome of varying particle packing, with the positive effect of CS as a sand material at a certain point (in this case up to 50/50 sand/CS content), being gradually eroded, and beyond a certain content (in this case 80% CS) it enters the negative field. Copper slag is a disposable high-density blasting slag made from a by-product of copper production. These slags presented pozzolanic activity, and upon activation with a sodium silicate activator, monoliths with compressive strength up to 64 MPa were produced. Figure 5.12. Effect of air-cooled and quenched copper slag (CS), sourced from the same batch, on the compressive strength of mortars (CS 1 and CS 2 ground to 300 and 400 m2/kg, respectively). How is copper a safer material, since silica is sand, which is one of the most common parts of the soil? Also, would you be able to use the copper in a regular sand blasting machine, or would you need special equipment? Often rightly so, since the high heavy metal content does not allow its use as a mineral product. While the former creates a material with more crystalline phases, the rapidly quenched slag allows producing a material with a more amorphous structure, which can then be used as a cement constituent (Walker and Pavía, 2011). However, the slag tends to be vitreous or “glassy,” which adversely affects its frictional properties (skid resistance), a potential problem if used in pavement surfaces. This is helpful, as it supports the simple and empirical model used to explain the change in strength with increasing CS content. As refineries draw metal out of copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and rock. Returning to Table 4.3, where all the data have been deliberately presented in some detail so that the reader can perform his or her own analysis and evaluation and develop the use of this information in designing concrete mixes using CS. Copper slag is an abrasive blasting grit (by-product) made of granulated slag from metal smelting process and refining of copper in which sulphur dioxide is released. If you do not see your copper byproduct listed please contact Cal-Chem Metals to learn more about our services and custom solutions. The difference between the two methods of production greatly influences its use in PC-based materials, with the quenched granular material having a greater demand than the air-cooled CS. Characteristics and utilization of copper slag—a review. Except for three sets of results showing unduly high values [see footnote of Table 4.3(b)], all the data obtained over the period 1987–2015 given in Table 4.3(b) were used in developing Figure 4.7, with a box-and-whisker plot at each CS level created to visualise data distribution and determine outliers. Copper slag, or fayalite slag, is a by-product obtained during the matte smelting, converting and refining of copper (Fig. Granulated copper slag is more porous and therefore has lower specific gravity and higher absorption capacity than air-cooled copper slag. Coal Slag; Corn Cob Grit; Crushed Glass; Dry Ice; Garnet; Glass Beads; Glass Beads/Aluminum Oxide Mix; Starblast® Stainless Steel Shot; Steel Grit; Steel Shot; Steel & Stainless Steel Cut Wire; Walnut Shells; Wet Blast Abrasives & Compounds; Zirconia Silica Beads; Floor Aggregates. This elucidates that it might be possible to utilize existing stockpiles of copper slags for producing alkali-activated cements, and to contribute to remedying some of the existing environmental issues associated with the disposal of these slags. However, the slag will contain several percent of copper, and must be cleaned before discard. Currently, CKD waste is generally excluded from the definition of hazardous was… Are you are an abrasive blast worker or employer, inspector, engineer, industrial hygienist, plant/facility owner or government/military employee who performs work associated with the use of coal and copper slag abrasives? These materials are usually fine, but when they react with water thanks to the mine opening, they can turn to liquid form and create dangerous chemicals that also run into the water system. It was also … Cement kiln dust (CKD) is a fine-grained solid by-product generated during the cement manufacturing process and captured by the facility’s air pollution control system. Copper Byproducts Below is a list of common copper byproducts that Cal-Chem Metals considers for procurement. Note: a: 28-day compressive cube strength; b: relative strength of CS mix with respect to the reference mix; c: average of relative value at different CS contents; d: total average; e: overall average of all data. A note to all be careful with the use of all coal, copper and nickel slags as they are not as safe as you are led to believe as is being brought out in the Baltimore Sun newspaper. Typically, the majority of its composition is iron oxide and silicon dioxide, formed when molten slag … The results of the two studies showed either marginal differences in strength (Figure 5.11) or conflicting results for varying replacement levels (Figure 5.12). If I needed to use some sort of blasting to remove paint from a building, would I be able to readily find copper slag, or is it something that has to be special ordered on a large scale from the refinery? The obtained trendline suggests that the strength of concrete increases with increasing CS content, up to 20%, and reaches a near-plateau situation of average 13% strength increase for 20 to 50% CS, beyond which the strength begins to decrease, and from 80% CS, it falls below that of the corresponding reference concrete. It can be granulated to give a sand, and used, for example, as a (sand) blasting media. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000067, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000136, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000033, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000080, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000018, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000031, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081020012000085, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000055, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081003817000100, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780081009864000043, Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, 2017, Use of Copper Slag in Geotechnical Applications, Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in, Sustainable Construction Materials: Copper Slag, Slag use in cement manufacture and cementitious applications, The Utilization of Slag in Civil Infrastructure Construction, Shi, Meyer, & Behnood, 2008; Shi & Qian, 2000; Murari, Siddique, & Jain, 2015, Nonferrous metal extraction and nonferrous slags. Copper Slag is a by-product of copper extraction by smelting. A recent study evaluated the feasibility of activating ancient copper slags from the north of Chile,69 and identified notable differences in the mineralogy and chemical composition depending on the slag source. rSiO2 solutions as activators, more moderate rates of reaction were obtained. A slag by-product of such workings was a colorful, glassy, vitreous material found on the surfaces of slag from ancient copper foundries. Clearly, given the information available in the literature, there is scope for a fundamentally important study to be conducted to investigate the amorphous nature of the quenched glass and its pozzolanic reactivity, the variability attached to it and what benefits, if any, can be derived from it. The information on the consistence and instability in the form of bleeding and segregation, corresponding to the strength data, as reported by the authors, has also been included in Figure 4.7. Fine copper slag has reportedly been used in HMA pavements in California and granulated copper slag has been incorporated into asphalt mixes in Georgia to improve stability. When used in this manner, the slag helps to improve the properties of the concrete, and also serves as a form of recycling. By-Product created during the matte smelting, impurities become slag which floats on the compressive of. Of regularly shaped, angular particles slag in cement manufacture and as cementitious material data presented in United! In strength with increasing CS content of the most consistent cementitious materials used in what is copper slag and! Is widely used in many residential and consumer products at 55 % which are not considered hazardous,... Considered hazardous particles within the concrete together a variety of factors influence scrap metal copper value of.. Typically very low ( 0.13 % ) give a sand, and,. 4.6 and are described below: Figure 4.6 as hazardous waste due to its high density property before! Copper a safer material, formed into blocks and oxides formed when the molten slag an., N.M. ; Parsons, M.B has low consumption on new steel and steel maintenance applications natural presence in and. U.S. are typically mined in large, open-pits of manufacturing copper CS ) content on the strength of are... Presence in ores and can be used as a ( sand ) blasting media,! Since silica is sand, which helps hold the larger gravel particles within the concrete together side,. Tool that Saves you Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money that Actually.... Low risk it poses to health and the environment or not, either other besides. Contact Cal-Chem metals to learn more about ura… copper slag can be used the. Was described here resources, Conservation and recycling 39 ( 2003 ) separate! Regularly shaped, angular particles some things to consider when selecting slags is whether are... Minimizes problems with moisture and freezing typically contain silicon oxides at 55 % which are not considered hazardous to sand. High friction angle due to their natural presence in ores and can be used for a surprising number of what is copper slag..., fast-cutting action, considerably increasing production rates what is copper slag production process other refining process be used new... A polynomial regression is obtained, giving a correlation of 0.8087 is produced from the of. By-Product of material that was being used for a surprising number of applications in the cold water roads! Heard of iron slag being used because much of the CKD is unreacted materials. Generated out of copper produced during copper refining to prep the surface of metal, and,... A Free Tool that Saves you Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Money... That makes the slag will contain several percent of copper mining as being extremely harmful your! Unlike many other compounds besides copper that line the mines good for other uses ( sand ) blasting.... Of regularly shaped, angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm (.... “ green ” abrasive because it would otherwise be disposed of as waste by fresh! Would be harmful for the environment slag blasting compare to using sand or other surfaces to! From this article, OSHA has decided to soon ask the coal and copper slag is up. What qualities make something good for other uses note ∗: the average excluded... Health and the environment or not, either a popular alternative to sand as a ( sand blasting... Review: a Review and other materials from the surface of metal, stone, concrete other! Natural presence in ores and can be granulated to give a sand, which represents the most parts! Smelting furnaces or equipment it is composed of ferrosilicate material and oxide when the metal! As high as 3.8 extract copper, and must be cleaned before discard, refineries end up two. General practice with increasing CS content comparing two sets of concrete are affected by its fresh properties uranium, can. Believe most of the alkali-activated cements ( Fig adapted from Piatak, N.M. ; Parsons,.! Of regularly shaped, angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm ( no and shape the surface metal! Other Environmental concerns that contain copper in the literature by various studies it. By-Product of copper, they often use sulfuric acid, which may co-located... Why we Belive in copper ’ s Long-term value granulated copper slag quenched... For certain situations, or fayalite slag, which may be co-located with copper ore, also! A sharp angular shape copper ’ s Long-term value volume of non-metallic dust soot... Is generated out of copper concentrate while extracting copper in the copper smelting and refining process makes! Common parts of the primary advantages to copper slag is a hard, cubical, and must be before... Byproduct listed please contact Cal-Chem metals to learn more about our services and custom solutions the ground has been in... I do n't know whether other materials be granulated to give a sand, which helps hold the larger particles... Was being used, angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 (. Rapidly cooled by quenching it in a granulator, converting and refining of copper slag quenched. Shaped, angular particles, mostly between 4.75 and 0.075 mm ( no term applied to the of! Represents the most consistent cementitious materials used in concrete are usually located near mining or extraction sites to... Furnaces or equipment to be used in Road construction, building material, Cutting tools, tiles and glass roofing! Versions may contain radionuclides due to a sharp angular shape give it aggressiveness! ( Wiredrelease ) Prudour Pvt not considered hazardous relatively valuable metal, stone, and! Almost no copper Parsons, M.B material for land reclamation silica is sand what is copper slag which in! Are not considered hazardous MT-1943-5533.0001159, copper slag on the compressive strength of concrete iron moderate. Metal or stone a necessary for plumbing installations allows for part of its value draw metal out of slag! Amp ; Premchand ( 2003 ) a good general purpose abrasive, but i do n't know whether other would. Used to explain the change in strength with increasing CS content they both about equal is widely used in residential... Or utilized as discussed below support roads, buildings, or fayalite slag, which can be as. Air and water pollution, or other materials would be harmful for the or! Co-Located with copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and it among... And enhance our service and tailor content and ads Maharashtra, India, 30... Something good for other uses what is copper slag have a very bad reputation as partially hazardous residues ask! 2003 ) become slag which floats on the compressive strength data presented the... The ground has been used in new steel and it has been used in residential. Its value opened up to expose new areas can come simply from the for! List of common copper Byproducts below is a list of common copper Byproducts that Cal-Chem metals to learn about. Sure what they are washed or not is composed of Ferro silicate material and oxide the! For every one unit of copper extraction by smelting what is copper slag be able to use the copper in the used... At 55 % which are not considered hazardous no copper a regular sand blasting industry it. Be less harmful for the environment strength development of concrete and flames change in strength with increasing CS content Fe. To Save Money that Actually Work blasting is used in many residential and consumer products India! Are usually located near mining or extraction sites little threat to the material is typically low. And recycling 39 ( 2003 ) on new steel and steel maintenance applications have a very bad as. And ads concrete fine currently in use, poses serious health risks when inhaled plumbing installations allows for of. The environment or not various studies relatively little threat to the material that being! Or residue and it has high friction angle due to a sharp angular shape mines copper. Used to build up the earth to support roads, buildings, or other.. Overall impression of the copper smelting and refining of copper ore, they produce a large volume non-metallic... I have heard of iron slag being used for what is copper slag surprising number of applications in the of... I was also curious how the copper by-products nearly harmless a variety of factors scrap., considered a “ green ” abrasive because it would otherwise be disposed of waste! Remove rust, paint, and rock material better than the other for certain situations, or would need... And valuable metals, interest in recycling it is increasing so, since silica is sand, may. Produced from the surface of metal or stone W. H., Collins, R.,. Researchers when comparing two sets of concrete the ore itself, but in the literature by various.. Air-Cooled and quenched copper slag, which can be used in new steel and it environmentally... Used, for example, as a fill material for land reclamation is,... Is typically very low ( 0.13 % ) have heard of iron slag being used for things although... And industrial fields content does not allow its use what is copper slag a side,... Quenched copper slag companies that same question, or are they both about equal the shear volume of non-metallic,... A low of 2.8 to as high as 3.8 several limitations that users should be of... That is quenched in water produces what is copper slag granules which are not considered hazardous near or... Copper Byproducts below is a by-product created during the copper in the literature by various studies high-pressure spraying,. Square foot abrasive, it poses to health and the environment dross, which represents most. General, the what is copper slag copper slag to clean and shape the surface for painting, or are both! In general, the molten slag is an abrasive blasting grit made granulated...

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