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The city’s story begins around 2500 years ago, with the Sassanid empire. © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Isfahan is one of the oldest inhabited cities in the world – it has witnessed the rise and fall of civilizations that have had the some of the deepest impacts on world history. Take this quiz to test your knowledge! It is the capital of the province of Alborz , and is situated 20 km west of Tehran, at the foot of the Alborz mountain range. 1521 seized the Capital of Serbia Belgrade. Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012. a city in central Iran: the capital of Persia from the 16th into the 18th century. In those days the centre of the city was a square, or rectangle, situated some distance to the north of what would later become the city’s main courtyard, the Maydān-e Shāh. Bridge built by Allāhverdi Khan over the Zāyandeh River in Eṣfahān, Iran. Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary, © 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. We Asked, You Answered. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire, the Ottoman Empire was based at Istanbul (formerly constantinople) from 1453 to 1822. Recovery began during the reign of Reza Shah Pahlavi (1925–41). The two roadways and the promenade remain, but the watercourse and fountains have disappeared. An industrial quarter was built, and many of the historic buildings were restored. The Shahrestān Bridge, which spans the Zāyandeh River a short distance southeast of the city, dates from the Sāsānian era; the piers are, however, all that remain of the original structure, the upper part having often been rebuilt. In 1722 the Ghilzay Afghans, led by Maḥmūd, defeated the Persian army a few miles east of Eṣfahān and took the city after a long siege. A town named Gabae (later called Gay in Middle Persian and Jayy in Arabic) at the site of modern Eṣfahān can be traced back to at least the Achaemenid era (559–330 bce), but little is known about the area before the rule of the Sāsānian dynasty (c. 224–c. For many years afterward most of the city was a heap of rubble, and its population dwindled to a fraction of what it had once been. Isfahan, a major city in central Iran, was the splendid capital of the Seljuq and Safavid dynasties whose legacies established Iran (formerly Persia) as the cultural heart of the eastern Islamic world in terms of language (Persian), art, and architecture. 1869 - Isfahan economy affected by opening of the Suez Canal in Egypt. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. ISFAHAN. HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY: AN OVERVIEW SINCE ANCIENT TIMES. Pop: 1 547 000 (2005 est) It was bordered on the north by the Great Mosque of Eṣfahān (Masjed-e Jāmiʿ), which is still one of the chief architectural glories of the city; at the southern end was the Mosque of ʿAlī (Masjed-e ʿAlī). In the 5th century Queen Shushan-Dukht, the Jewish consort of Yazdegerd I (reigned 399–420), is said to have settled a colony of Jews nearby in Yahūdiyyeh (literally “town of the Jews”). Its profusion of tree-lined boulevards, Persian gardens and important Islamic buildings gives it a visual appeal unmatched by any other Iranian city and the many artisans working here underpin its reputation as a living museum of traditional culture. In general, Isfahan authorities have been unwilling to speak on the matter. It has a population of nearly 1,600,000. “Pagan” vs. “Wicca”: What Is The Difference? 1836/1837 - Unrest. Eṣfahān is situated on the north bank of the Zāyandeh River at an elevation of about 5,200 feet (1,600 metres), roughly 210 miles (340 km) south of the capital city of Tehrān. Its present configuration is the sum of building and decorating activities carried out from the 8th through the 20th centuries. Isfahan definition, a city in central Iran: the capital of Persia from the 16th into the 18th century. 1848/1849 - Unrest. a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. It features numerous tree-lined boulevards and flower gardens, miles of beautiful parks along the Zayandeh Rood river; 1300 year-old covered bazaars, bridges, palaces, mosques, and minarets.No wonder Isfahan is called nesf-e jahān meaning half of the world. 1453. refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empire's capital by the Ottoman Empire. They reject acts they view as polytheistic, such as visiting tombs and venerating saints, and advocate a return to the teachings of Islam as articulated in the Qur’an and the Sunnah. A Persian proverb cited Esfahan nesf-e- jahan ast, meaning Esfahan is half of the world. At the northern end of the courtyard is a tiled gateway leading to the Qayṣariyyeh, or royal bazaar. The Isfahan metropolitan area had a population of 3,430,353 in the 2006 Census, the second most populous metropolitan area in Iran after Tehran. Eṣfahān is situated on the north bank of the Zāyandeh River at an elevation of about 5,200 feet (1,600 metres), roughly 210 miles (340 km) south of the capital city of Tehrān. Shah Ismail's grandson, Shah Abbas I, made Isfahan his capital created the city as we know it today. After the Arab conquest in 642, the city came to be known by the regional name Eṣfahān. The Safavids were in and out of power throughout the 18th century, with the revolt of former enslaved person Nadir Shah and the establishment of the Zand dynasty. The distance between the south of the capital of Iran and this city is about 414km and it is located at the height of 1575 m above the sea level and enjoys a … “Affect” vs. “Effect”: Use The Correct Word Every Time, The Most Surprisingly Serendipitous Words Of The Day. Isfahan is a visual feast. In 1501, the Safavid dynasty brought Shi'a Islam to Persia. Isfahan is situated in an area known as Jolgeh (plains). He then returned to Isfahan, where he made a stay of four months. Isfahan extends over an area of approximately 15263 square kilometers. Its origins date back to the Achaemenid era (c. 550 – 330 b.c.e. Its present configuration is the sum of building and decorating activities carried out from the 8th through the 20th centuries. The ethnically Azeri/Kurdish Safavids ruled until 1736, often clashing with the powerful Ottoman Turkish Empire to the west. So how do you know if you spell them as one word or two? After a perilous journey they reached Isfahan, and received an honourable welcome from the prince. Many visitors believe Isfahan is the most beautiful city in Iran and one of the most beautiful in the world. 651 ce). Interior of the Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”), Eṣfahān, Iran. (The establishment of the colony has also been attributed to Nebuchadrezzar, but that seems less likely.) But the people of Isfahan are talking, and some are feeling decidedly anxious and worried. Updates? 1804/1805 - Famine. The Dictionary.com Word Of The Year For 2020 Is …. Under the Arabs it served as the capital of Al-Jibāl (“the Mountains”) province, an area that covered much of ancient Media. The defeat of the Qara-Quiunlu leader, Alvand, by his distant cousin Shah Ismail, marked the start of the Safavid period of rule. 1872 - Famine. ... Isfahan: Meaning and Definition of. A French Huguenot jeweler and writer, Jean Chardin, spent 10 years in Eṣfahān between 1664 and 1677 and in his Voyages gave a detailed and graphic description of the city as it was at its zenith. (of 7): Media, Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 1, Journeys in Persia and Kurdistan, Volume I (of 2). The northern part of the avenue, nearly 1 mile (1.6 km) long and 200 feet (61 metres) wide, consisted of two alleyways with a promenade between; down the centre was a watercourse with basins and fountains at intervals. Not to be outdone, his rival Tāj al-Mulk then built nearby a smaller but even more beautiful dome chamber that is said to have attained “the perfection of architecture.”. See more. 1300. Islamic state founded by Osman in northwestern Anatolia ca. At the southern end of the courtyard is the famous Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”; formerly Masjed-e Shāh), begun in 1611/12 but not finished until after ʿAbbās’s death. This archway leads into the gardens of the former royal palace, which covers a large area with courts and pavilions, one of which, the Chehel Sotūn (“Forty Columns”), was famous as a veranda and throne room for ʿAbbās. Nearly 1,800 feet (549 metres) west of the Maydān-e Emām and connected to it by a side road is the Chahār Bāgh (“Four Gardens”), the avenue that ʿAbbās made to give access to his capital from the south. Isfahan lies at an altitude of 1570 meters above sea level. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership - Now 30% off. Isfahan's history is an epic cycle of fabulous boom and calamitous bust. The Armenian merchants have, like the Europeans, their offices in Isfahan. 1874 - Mass'oud Mirza Zell-e Soltan becomes governor of Isfahan. Isfahan, historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about 340 km south of Tehran. The Great Mosque of Isfahan in Iran is unique in this regard and thus enjoys a special place in the history of Islamic architecture. The Chahār Bāgh runs southward to the Zāyandeh River, which it crosses by means of a fine bridge built by Allāhverdi Khan, one of ʿAbbās’s generals. Eṣfahān first thrived under the Seljuq Turks (11th–12th century) and then under the Persian Ṣafavid dynasty (16th–18th century). The fourth most populous city of Iran, Karaj , has a population of around 1.9 million (2016 census). It has modern textile and steel mills and oil refineries. Chapter 9 pg 356 Isfahan is a metropolis surrounded by desert and semi-desert districts from east and Zagros Mountains from the west. Toghrïl Beg, the Turkish conqueror and founder of the Seljuq dynasty, made Eṣfahān the capital of his domains in the mid-11th century, and under his famous grandson Malik-Shah I (reigned 1073–92) the city grew in size and splendour. This period has left a tremendous heritage of architectural splendour in the city. Mar 25, 2013 - Explore Max Nyholm's board "Chapter 21" on Pinterest. (2016) 1,961,260. After the fall of the Seljuqs (c. 1200), Eṣfahān temporarily declined and was eclipsed by other Iranian cities such as Tabrīz and Qazvīn, but it regained its preeminent position during the Ṣafavid period (1501–1736). Next year in Iran: Why and how we celebrate NOWRUZ March 13, 2019 / / On the eastern side stands the Masjed-e Shaykh Luṭf Allāh (“Sheikh Loṭfollāh Mosque”), the mosque used by ʿAbbās for his private devotions. A famine ensued in consequence of this, and the inhabitants of Isfahan were reduced to despair. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved. The Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”) in Eṣfahān, Iran. Shah definition is - a sovereign of Iran. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. — Washington Post, "The case for Jimmy Carter as a ‘consequential’ president," 4 Dec. 2020 The shah entered the … Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Dates, Traditions, and History. Eṣfahān never fully recovered from this event. During his reign he … 1736 - Persian capital relocated from Isfahan to Mashhad. Find definitions for: Is•fa•han. The city of Isfahan embodies the districts of Koohpaye, Meimeh, Jarghooyeh and Borkhar. A later artistic impression (date unknown) of ʿAbbās I (the Great) of Persia, who planned and rebuilt the city of Eṣfahān, Iran. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”), Eṣfahān, Iran. Janissary definition, a member of an elite military unit of the Turkish army organized in the 14th century and abolished in 1826 after it revolted against the Sultan. Gradual gathering and spreading of old and new technical knowledge that led to major economic changes in Britain, NW Europe, and North America, (catapulted these countries ahead of the rest of the … Eṣfahān, Iran, designated a World Heritage site in 1979. An ancient and picturesque city, rich in history, Esfahan has long been known for its fine carpets, hand-printed textiles, and metalwork, chiefly silver filigree. See more ideas about ottoman empire, ap world history, history. The morning had the hazy stillness of winter. Save 30% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Describe 2020 In Just One Word? No quinces are so fine as those of Isfahan, and no melons have a more delicate flavor. Former capital of Iran and major industrial center.. Isfahan is located in west central Iran along both banks of the Zayandeh River. Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021, Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition Isfahan is Iran’s top tourist destination for good reason. ), but it did not emerge as an important city until 1150, when Toghril Beg, founder of the Seljuk dynasty, chose it as his capital. n. a city in central Iran: the capital of Persia from the 16th into the 18th century. Eṣfahān grew prosperous under the Persian Būyid (Buwayhid) dynasty, which rose to power and ruled much of Iran when the temporal authority of the ʿAbbāsid caliphs waned in the 10th century. WHEN Shah Abbas the Great became ruler of Persia's Safawid dynasty in 1587, he chose Isfahan as his capital and undertook to make it eclipse all other cities. Courtyard of the Masjed-e Shaykh Luṭf Allāh (“Sheikh Loṭfollāh Mosque”), Eṣfahān, Iran. Niẓām al-Mulk, Malik-Shah’s chief minister and the patron of the poet Omar Khayyam, added a beautiful dome chamber to the Great Mosque. Today we’ll spend a day with the people of Isfahan, ‘the city that is half the world’, and the one where we found the Iran we dreamed of. 986,753. The reason behind this resonant name is that the city is a house to both more than 6,000 big and small historical works and untouched nature. a city in central Iran: the second largest city in the country; capital of Persia in the 11th century and from 1598 to 1722. A noteworthy city in Sassanid times, Esfahan passed to the Arabs in the mid-7th cent. In 1979 Eṣfahān’s Maydān-e Emām (Persian: “Imam’s Square”; formerly Maydān-e Shāh, “Royal Square”) was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. Zealots on motorcycles are throwing acid at women whose veils are deemed too loose in the ancient city of Isfahan. 1529 laid siege to Vienna. Eṣfahān, also spelled Isfahan, capital of Eṣfahān province and major city of western Iran. Only one tall minaret remains of the original building. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. During this striking period of architectural growth, the city was also the centre of the Eṣfahān school of miniature painting and was home to numerous scholars and literati. (According to legend the monarch had to purchase four gardens in order to construct the road.) (ˌɪsfəˈhɑːn ) or Eşfahān. Why Do “Left” And “Right” Mean Liberal And Conservative? The stunning iwan of the Imam Mosque, Isfahan. Eṣfahān first thrived under the Seljuq Turks (11th–12th century) and then under the Persian Ṣafavid dynasty (16th–18th century). In addition to being an important regional and provincial capital (of Eṣfahān province), the city is one of the most important architectural centres in the Islamic world. In the centre of the city he created the immense Maydān-e Shāh, a courtyard that measures 1,674 by 540 feet (510 by 165 metres). Pop. The spaces between these buildings are filled by two-story buildings with arched recesses, all of uniform design. and served as a provincial capital. The city’s golden age began in 1598 when the Ṣafavid ruler ʿAbbās I (the Great; reigned 1588–1629) made it his capital and rebuilt it into one of the largest and most beautiful cities of the 17th century. The Top 10 Desk Chairs. The Isfahan oasis, as a prosperous area of agricultural life, eventually fostered the foundation of a major city—one whose strategic location helped it to dominate the entire area of Iran. ii. Dictionary.com Unabridged Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Shade was provided by rows of trees. Pop: 1 547 000 (2005 est), Acid Attacks on Women Spread Terror in Iran, The Seven Great Monarchies Of The Ancient Eastern World, Vol 3. See more. While itself home to many of the marvelous attractions of Isfahan, the Naqsh-e Jahan Square deserves mention in its own… Sara, 21 years old, lives in the historic Iranian city of Isfahan, close to Jolfa, the Christian quarter. It then had, he said, 162 mosques, 273 public baths, 1,802 caravansaries, and 48 madrasahs (religious colleges). It is also home to the world's seventh largest shopping mall, Isfahan City Center. Click again to see term Isfahan History. This building, decorated with enameled tiles of great brilliance, has been carefully preserved since the 20th century. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It ncompassed lands in the Middle East, North Africa, and eastern Europe. This List of Favorite Islands will Make You Remember Why You Loved Poptropica So Much. Wahhabi, any adherent of the Muslim reform movement founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab in the 18th century. Pakzad is referring to the head of Ansar-e-Hezbollah in Isfahan, who denies having heard the news. Eṣfahān, also spelled Isfahan, capital of Eṣfahān province and major city of western Iran. Isfahan in British English. It has a population of 1,583,609 and is Iran's third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad. The Great Mosque of Isfahan in Iran is unique in this regard and thus enjoys a special place in the history of Islamic architecture. Among the last group was the renowned Māder-e Shāh (“Royal Mother”) madrasah; built in the early 18th century, it has a splendid Arabesque dome. Half of the World in Esfahan The present study was conducted in four villages (Islamabad, Gishi, Vartoon and Parvaneh-Aliabadchi), 50 to 95 km from Esfahan City, Esfahan Province, Iran from April to November 2011. What Does “Auld Lang Syne” Actually Mean? Omissions? English loves putting words together to make new ones. A compound word is a word that is composed of two or more words that are otherwise unaltered. 1882 - Population: 73,634. ISFAHAN . Isfahan, one of whose oldest names is Sepahan, has been nicknamed in Iran as 'Nesf-e Jahan,' which means 'half of the world' in English. Recent Examples on the Web Once the shah was admitted for medical treatment, however, Carter’s fears were realized. Reigned (1520-1566) When the empire reached the Apex of it's power. noun. On the western side of the square is the ʿAlī Qāpū (“Lofty Gate”), a high building in the form of an archway that is crowned in the forepart by an immense tālār, or covered balcony, that served as an audience hall and as a vantage point from which the shah and his courtiers or guests could watch games of polo or gladiatorial combats below. Where Did The Strange Expression “Hair Of The Dog” Come From? 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